Okayyyy, so I totally didn't expect it to take this long to write my second blog post. After extended contemplation, I have listed all of the reasons for this delay in order, creating a weighted score based on importance, frequency of occurrence and elapsed time:
Now that we got that out of the way, on to part two!
SAME EXPOSURE, DIFFERENT SETTINGS
I mentioned how there are instances where you want to change your shutter speed, aperture and ISO settings, even though you end up with the same exposure. To show an example of this, I picked a photo from a contest that is perhaps the ultimate in sports competition. Of course, I'm talking about the Dizzy Bat Race between innings at the Cal baseball game.
For those unfamiliar with this King of Sports, two contestants place the fat end of a bat on the ground and place their forehead on the handle end of the bat. They then do ten revolutions around the bat, making the contestants somewhat dizzy. After the ten spins, they run towards the finish line, usually in an inebriated-like state. The first one to the finish line is the winner. Fun is had by all.
I was at the Cal game on Saturday and this is one of the shots that I ended up with:
1/4000 sec. @ f/5.6, ISO 5000
While this correctly shows the proper form for the game, there's not much here to know what's going on and it's a rather unremarkable picture. I returned to Cal on Monday and another Dizzy Bat contest was held. I thought about how to improve my first attempt at capturing the image of these regal competitors and came up with an idea. How about slowing down the shutter to get some motion into the shot? Additionally, I noticed that they had the contest on the big scoreboard, so getting that in the shot would help explain things as well.
Since the contest already started (I need to come up with these ideas a lot faster next time), I quickly lowered my shutter speed to get motion blur (bringing in more light), closed down my aperture to get more of my scene in focus (less light) and went into Auto ISO mode (because it was revolution #8 out of 10 by the time I finished changing my first two settings). At this shutter speed, it was difficult to get a non-blurry background, so this was my best attempt:
1/13 sec. @ f/11, ISO 100
And I will be the first to tell you that this shot will not win any prizes, nor does it accurately depict the majesty of this battle. If I had time to set everything up, I would have gone back to my car to get my tripod and set my shutter speed at something like a 1/2 second to get more motion in the shot. I also would have asked the second baseman that was warming up between innings to get out of my shot. However, it is a good example of why I would want to change my settings to come up with relatively the same exposure.
So, was it worth the wait to get the answer to my question in the first blog post? I'm guessing not. =P
One of the questions I often get from people who have just bought a DSLR is, "What should I learn first?". There are a lot of things to learn when it comes to photography, but what I always suggest is to understand shutter speed, aperture and ISO. Setting these three values determines how much light comes into your camera. The correct amount of light will give you the proper exposure you're looking for.
Now, you can set your DSLR to fully automatic mode, fire off some shots and get a proper exposure most of the time. But, what happens when you look at the screen on the back of your camera and see this:
A great shot if you're trying to capture a nice shot of empty stands, but not so much if you actually want to see the face of #50.
I'll explain why the camera set this exposure in a future post. For now, it's an example of how fully automatic mode can fail you. Setting your camera to aperture priority or shutter/time priority would have given you the same results.
This is why I think this is the first thing you should learn. You have to know what to do to fix a shot like this. You can fire shot after shot in automatic mode and get the same result. Putting your camera into manual mode and adjusting your shutter speed/aperture/ISO values will allow you to expose this shot for the player's face (there's another way, but let's totally ignore that, since I'm trying to make a point here).
So, let's start with the easiest one to understand...
When I bought my first DSLR, the only thing I knew about camera settings is shutter speed. The faster the shutter speed, the better you can freeze the action.
No idea how fast or slow the shutter speed needed to be... heck, I didn't even know how to change the shutter speed.
The slower your shutter speed, the more light is let in to your camera. If your subject is stationary, you can set your shutter speed for multiple seconds, as long as you keep your camera steady. HOWEVER, if it's moving, then you'll have to figure out how fast your shutter speed needs to be to eliminate/lessen motion blur. I'll discuss some settings I go with for different situations in future posts.
I heard of aperture when I started, but all I knew was that it was some fancy schmancy word photographers threw around to make themselves sound smart. The aperture value is the size of the opening inside the lens that lets light into the camera. The lower the number, the larger the opening (for example, f/2.8 is larger than f/4) and the more light comes in. HOWEVER, the lower the number, the less area in front and behind your subject is in focus.
In the beginning, I went searching to find out what ISO stood for and quite honestly, I totally don't remember... and it doesn't matter anyway. The higher the ISO number, the more light your camera's sensor collects. HOWEVER, the higher the number, the more grain/noise appears in your image.
OK GENIUS, NOW WHAT?
Now that you understand the Holy Trinity of photography (or, now that I've totally confused you), take a shot with any values you want. Then, look at the result. Too bright? You can either speed up your shutter, make your aperture smaller, or lower your ISO. Too dark? Do the opposite. Take shots with your adjusted settings until you get a properly exposed shot.
You can now change one value up one click (settings are usually changed by rotating a wheel on your camera and one click changes the setting to the next value higher or lower), and another value down one click and the result is the same exact exposure. For example, if your settings are 1/250, f/4, ISO 400, you can make the shutter speed 1/320 (faster, less light), the aperture f/3.2 (larger, more light), keep your ISO at 400 and you'll get the same exposure.
Why would you need to change settings to end up with the same exposure? Well, that's what I'll talk about in my next post... hey, I need to space these things out, otherwise, I'll run out of things to blog about by the end of the month.
© DYama Photography